||Capital of the Mahajanapadas
||Facts about 16 Mahajanapadas
||Munger and Bhagalpur
- Anga Mahajanapada finds reference in the Mahabharata and Atharva Veda.
- During the rule of Bimbisara, it was taken over by Magadha Empire.
- It is situated in present-day Bihar and West Bengal.
- Its capital Champa was located at the confluence of the Ganga and the Champa rivers.
- It was an important commercial centre on the trade routes and merchants sailed from here to Suvarnabhumi (South East Asia).
||Gaya and Patna
- Magadha finds mention in the Atharva Veda.
- It was located in present-day Bihar close to Anga, divided by river Champa.
- Later, Magadha became a centre of Jainism and the first Buddhist Council was held in Rajagriha.
- It was located in Varanasi.
- This city got its name from rivers Varuna and Asi as cited in the Matsya Purana.
- Kasi was captured by Kosala.
- Vatsa is also known as Vamsa.
- Located on the banks of the Yamuna.
- This Mahajanapada followed the monarchical form of governance.
- The capital was Kausambi/Kaushambi (which was at the confluence of Ganga and Yamuna).
- This was a central city for economic activities.
- Trade and business prospered in the 6th century. After the rise of Buddha, the ruler Udayana made Buddhism a state religion.
|Eastern Uttar Pradesh
- It was located in modern Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh.
- The area also included Ayodhya, an important city associated with the Ramayana.
- Kosala also included the tribal republican territory of Sakyas of Kapilavastu. Lumbini in Kapilavastu is the birthplace of Gautama Buddha.
- Important king – Prasenajit (Buddha’s contemporary)
||Western Uttar Pradesh
- This place was a centre of Krishna worship at the time of Megasthenes.
- There was a dominance of the Buddha’s followers also.
- Important king – Awantipura (Disciple of Buddha).
- Its capital Mathura was on the banks of the Yamuna.
||Ahichchatra and Kampilya
||Western Uttar Pradesh
- Its capital for northern Panchala was Ahichchatra (modern Bareilly) and Kampilya (modern Farrukhabad) for its southern regions.
- The famous city of Kannauj was situated in the Kingdom of Panchala.
- Later the nature of governance shifted from monarchy to republic.
||Meerut and Southeastern Haryana
- The area around Kurukshetra was apparently the site for Kuru Mahajanapada.
- It moved to a republic form of governance.
- The epic poem, the Mahabharata, tells of a conflict between two branches of the reigning Kuru clan.
- It was situated to the west of the Panchalas and south of the Kurus.
- The capital was at Viratanagara (modern Bairat).
- It is situated around present-day Jaipur, Alwar and Bharatpur area of Rajasthan.
- Founder – Virata
- This was cited in the Rigveda.
- The capital was Sothivati/Shuktimati/Sotthivatinagara
- It located in the present-day Bundelkhand region (Central India).
- King – Shishupala. He was killed by Vasudeva Krishna during the Rajasuya sacrifice of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
||Ujjaini or Mahismati
||Malwa and Madhya Pradesh
- Avanti was significant in relation to the rise of Buddhism.
- The capital of Avanti was located at Ujjaini (northern part) and Mahismati (southern part).
- It was situated around present-day Malwa and Madhya Pradesh.
- Important king – Pradyota.
- Father-in-law of Udayana (King of the Vatsas).
- The capital was at Taxila (Takshashila).
- Present-day location – Modern Peshawar and Rawalpindi, Pakistan and the Kashmir valley.
- Gandhara is cited in the Atharva Veda.
- The people were highly trained in the art of war.
- It was significant for international commercial activities.
- Important king – Pushkarasarin.
- Gandhara was conquered by Persians in the latter part of the sixth century BCE.
||Rajouri and Hajra (Kashmir), NWFP (Pakistan)
- The capital of Kamboja was Poonch.
- It is situated in present-day Kashmir and Hindukush.
- Several literary sources mention that Kamboja was a republic.
- Kambojas had an excellent breed of horses.
|Asmaka or Assaka
||Banks of Godavari
- It was located on the banks of Godavari.
- It was the only Mahajanapada situated to the south of the Vindhya Range and was in Dakshinapatha.
- It included the region of Pratisthan or Paithan.
- North of Ganga in the division of Tirhut was the state of the Vajjis.
- It included eight clans, the most powerful being the Lichchhavis (Capital – Vaishali), Videhans (Capital – Mithila), Jnatrikas (based in Kundapura).
- <>Mahavira belonged to the Jnatrikas clan.
- The Vajjis were defeated by Ajatashatru.
||Deoria and Uttar Pradesh
- It finds a reference in Buddhist and Jain texts and in the Mahabharata.
- Malla was a republic.
- Its territory touched the northern border of the Vajji state.
- Capitals – Kusinara and Pava.
- Both capitals are important in the history of Buddhism. The Buddha took his last meal at Pava and went to Mahaparinirvana at Kusinara.
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