Arctic Council

  • The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum that addresses issues faced by the Arctic governments and the indigenous people of the Arctic.
  • The eight countries with sovereignty over the lands within the Arctic Circle constitute the members of the council.
  • The Arctic Council has conducted studies on climate change, oil and gas, and Arctic shipping.


  • The first step towards the formation of the Council occurred in 1991 when the eight Arctic countries signed the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS).
  • The 1996 Ottawa Declaration established the Arctic Council as a forum for promoting cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic states.
  • In 2011, the Council member states concluded the Arctic Search and Rescue Agreement, the first binding treaty concluded under the Council's auspices.

Member States

  1. Canada
  2. Denmark representing Greenland,Faroe Islands
  3. Finland
  4. Iceland
  5. Norway
  6. Russia
  7. Sweden
  8. United States(Alaska)

Observer States

  1. Germany, 1998
  2. Netherlands, 1998
  3. Poland, 1998
  4. United Kingdom, 1998
  5. France, 2000
  6. Spain, 2006
  7. China, 2013
  8. India, 2013
  9. Italy, 2013
  10. Japan, 2013
  11. South Korea, 2013
  12. Singapore, 2013
  13. Switzerland, 2017

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