TAPI Pipeline Project | UPSC

  • The Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline(TAPI) is a natural gas pipeline being developed by the Galkynysh – TAPI Pipeline Company Limited with participation of the Asian Development Bank.
  • TAPI Pipeline project also known as Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline & Peace Pipeline.
  • The pipeline will transport natural gas from the Galkynysh Gas Field(Turkmenistan) through Afghanistan, Pakistan and then to India.
  • TAPI pipeline will be a 1,814km trans-country natural gas pipeline running across these four countries.
  • A special-purpose consortium known as the TAPI Pipeline Company (TPCL) was incorporated in November 2014 by Turkmengaz (majority stakeholder with 85% interest), Afghan Gas Enterprise (5%), Inter State Gas Systems (5%), and GAIL (5%) to execute the $10bn project, with Turkmengaz leading the consortium.
  • A stone-laying ceremony was held to commemorate the start of construction of the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan section of the TAPI gas pipeline in December 2015 in Mary, Turkmenistan, near the Galkynysh gas field.
  • The investment agreement for the development of the TAPI project was signed by the four countries in February 2016.


  • The plan for the TAPI project was originally conceived in the 1990s to generate revenue from Turkmenistan's gas reserves by exporting natural gas via Afghanistan to Pakistan and India.
  • An inter-governmental agreement (IGA) was signed in 2010 by the heads of four member nations.
  • Turkmengaz, Afghan Gas Enterprise, Inter State Gas Systems, and GAIL were nominated as shareholders by their respective countries to promote and invest in the pipeline project in 2013.


  • The pipeline is expected to facilitate a unique level of trade and co-operation across the region, while also supporting peace and security between the four nations.
  • More than 1.5 billion people in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India are expected to benefit from the long-term energy security provided by the project.
  • In addition, the project is expected to boost the revenues of Turkmenistan via the sale of gas.
  • Afghanistan and Pakistan will also receive benefits through transit fees.

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